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Damage models play a decisive role in predicting the fracture phenomena that occur during metal forming or material testing. They may be classified into many categories based on energy, pore-growth micromechanics, porous material and continuum-damage mechanics. AFDEX supports the following damage models as shown in Figure 1 in the current version. 1. Cockroft & Latham Normalized 2. McClintock 3. Brozzo, Deluca & Rendina 4. Oyane, Okimoto & Shima 5. Rice & Tracey 6. Freundenthal Figure 1: Damage models in AFDEX For predicting the crack propagation, AFDEX uses an improved node-splitting technique in the quadrilateral mesh system. Figure 2 shows the history of the fracture formation made using the Brozzo et. Al damage model. It can be observed that the early crack propagates horizontally up to two thirds of the radius of the material. The crack growth is then finalized in the inclined direction. Figure 2: History of fracture formation by the Brozzo et al. damage model A detailed view of the fracture surfaces predicted using different damage models is presented in Figure 3. Figure 3: Detailed view of Fracture surfaces All the major damage models predicted acceptable solutions in terms of the slope of the tensile load drop in the fracture region. It can be observed from Figure 4 that the Freudenthal damage model came closest to the experiments. Figure 4: Load vs. Elongation curve based comparison For more details, reading the literature in the link below is recommended. http://msjoun.gnu.ac.kr/pub/paper/2014/Evaluation of Damage.pdf Cheers from AFDEX Support Team !
Hello everyone, Let’s assume you have the process design and all the relevant parameters to simulate. So you open a new project in AFDEX, import geometry and define all other simulation factors. This creates .prj, .scf, .sif, .slf and .bat files. Don’t get worried about the new terms. Just have a look at my earlier post (File Types in AFDEX) to get yourselves acquainted. Like any Job Control Language, batch files (.bat) give us the freedom to write our own script so that we can automate the task of running simulations. So after the process definition is over in AFDEX, you can also double click and execute the .bat file to run the simulation. This trick will be very useful if you must execute multiple simulations simultaneously. Please keep following our forum. The next post would probably have an example showing the usage of .bat file to execute multiple simulations in this manner. Following is an example of a effective strain contour from a plate forging simulation executed from the .bat file. Please feel free to ask if you have any questions. Cheers! AFDEX Support Team
Hello everyone, The list of values of state variables like effective stress or effective strain from a metal forming simulation using AFDEX can be easily obtained from the results folder. 1.Navigate to the simulation results folder 2.Open the “element_value.txt” file to view the effective strain and damage values of elements 3.Open the “”node_value.txt” file to view the effective stress and the principal stress values Let us know what you think and feel free to ask questions if you have any. Cheers from AFDEX Support Team!
Hello Everyone, We saw different file types and their meaning in previous posts and the usage of the batch file to execute a simulation. As promised earlier, here is a post that demonstrates how to execute multiple simulations simultaneously. Step 1: Save the simulation files in the same folder. Do not run them Step 2: "Edit" all the ".bat" files as shown in the figure. Step 3: The highlighted first line in every batch file is very important. These lines need to be pasted on a new batch file for simultaneous execution. Step 4: Make a copy of one of the existing ".bat" files like shown in the figure. Step 5: Enter the lines from batch files into the new notepad as shown in the picture. Step 6: Double Click the new batch file to execute the simulations. Let us know what you think and feel free to ask questions if you have any. Cheers from AFDEX Support Team!